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Laboratory Safety Problems and Solutions(3/4)

The main types of laboratory safety accidents:
1. Fire accidents
The occurrence of fire accidents is universal, and almost all laboratories are likely to occur. The direct causes of such accidents are:
(1) forgetting to turn off the power supply, causing the equipment or electrical appliances under power on status for long time, the temperature is too high, causing fire;
(2) inadvertently operating or improper use, so that the fire source contact flammable substances, resulting in fire;
(3) dangerous chemical leakage caused by fire source or heat source caused by explosion fire;
(4) power supply line aging, overload operation, resulting in line heating, resulting in fire;
(5) littering cigarette butts, touching flammable substances, causing fire;
(6) burning flame or high temperature substances caused by combustion reaction experiments or out of control chemical reactions, such as heated crucible igniting flammable substances;
(7) heating fires such as alcohol lamps, electric stoves, etc., forgetting to turn off, causing materials to escape or burn dry to cause fire, etc.

2.Explosive accidents:
Explosive accidents often occur in laboratories with flammable and explosive articles and pressure vessels. The direct causes of such accidents are:
(1) in violation of operating rules, igniting flammable articles, which in turn leads to explosion;
(2) equipment aging, faults or defects, resulting in the leakage of flammable and explosive articles, and explosion in the event of sparks;
(3) the release of combustion heat energy caused by misoperation in the experiment;
(4) explosion accident caused by heat or impact of explosive material;
(5) improper operation or unqualified physical explosion accident of high pressure and high energy cylinder device;
(6) production process, imperfect equipment or system, resulting in dangerous chemical explosion;
(7) chemical reaction in closed container or narrow space, reaction suddenly increasing pressure, leakage and so on.

3. Chemical pollution accidents
The causes of chemical pollution accidents are as follows:
(1) improper collection of chemical waste liquid leads to environmental and groundwater pollution;
(2) waste water discharge pipeline is blocked or out of repair, resulting in environmental pollution;
(3) equipment aging, defects and faults cause toxic substance leakage or toxic gas discharge, resulting in poisoning;
(4) hold the volatile chemical reagent bottle and forget to cover it after use.

4. Pressure cylinder accidents:
Such accidents are mainly manifested in:

(1) explosion caused by high temperature or strong collision of pressure gas cylinder;
(2) explosion of flammable gas when it reaches a certain concentration in air;
(3) poisoning and environmental pollution caused by toxic gas leakage.

5. Drug toxicity accidents:
Drug toxicity accidents are mainly manifested in:
(1) in violation of operating rules, bring food into toxic laboratories, resulting in food poisoning;
(2) when configuring or using toxic reagents, do not operate in ventilation cabinets, resulting in human body, skin absorption, causing chronic poisoning;
(3) equipment and facilities aging, there are faults or defects, resulting in toxic substance leakage or toxic gas discharge, resulting in poisoning;
(4) toxic reagents are discharged without detoxification treatment, resulting in environmental pollution.
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